BoreInspect

for high-precision 3D metrology of bore holes

BoreInspect is a modular, non-contact optical measurement system that provides micron-precision 3D measurements of bore interiors. Its rotational scanner easily enters bores to acquire their complete inside geometry at high speed. The BoreInspect

  • Measures every detail of bore ID, including undercuts, chamfers, threads, rifling, o-ring grooves, splines, lands, edge breaks
  • Enables fully configurable automated digital inspection
  • Can detect micron-size surface defects such as porosities, cracks, or scratches
  • Is able to measure surface roughness as well as thickness of semi-transparent coatings.

BoreInspect performs in a wide range of industrial inspection applications and settings (bottom left: the rotational scanner RS2 on linear stage, top left: RS2 on a robotic arm, right: RS2 on a 3-axis inspection station, also called RS4)

Novacam BoreInspect performs in a wide range of industrial inspection applications and settings.  Its rotational scanner is shown here in three different configurations.

 

Videos

BoreInspect in action

Valve body bores – automated 3D metrology (automotive)

RS2, a non-contact rotational scanner and a key component of the BoreInspect system, acquires the 3D inner diameters (IDs) of several bores in a valve body as part of a fully automated digital inspection.

Benefits:  3D interactive modeling of valve bores, measurements of distance, absolute position, cylindricity, surface/dimensional defects, roughness, geometric tolerances of internal features, dimensional deviations, and more

Airfoil 3D inspection (aerospace)

Microcam-3D airfoil scanner delivers micron-precision 3D optical measurements of hard-to-reach places.

Benefits: fully automated inspection of component complete geometry, airfoil trailing and leading edge, 3D modeling, micron-precision defect detection, dimensional deviations, geometric tolerances, measurement of distances.

 

Turbine blade – high-speed 3D metrology (aerospace)

RS2, a non-contact rotational scanner and a key component of the BoreInspect system, enters the complex geometrical structures of turbine blades to completely acquire their dimensional geometry down to the micron.

Benefits: fully configurable automated scanning sequences, detection of surface or dimensional defects, characterization of EDM slots and airholes (control of fan-out angle, etc.),tolerance analysis, dimensional deviations, geometric tolerances, datum alignment capability, and more.

Note: If a tube/cylinder you need to inspect also needs to be characterized on the outside, this can be achieved either by mounting the BoreInspect rotational scanner on a gantry or by using Novacam’s TubeInspect system, which measures both the ID and OD of tubes mounted on a motorized spinning fixture.

 

Overview

Measurements

  • Optical, non-contact, non-destructive
  • 2D and 3D surface and subsurface characterization; diameter, circularity, cylindricity, runout, taper, distortion, straightness
  • High-aspect-ratio features: undercuts, threads, O-ring grooves, cross-holes
  • Sub-micron resolution and excellent sensitivity and measurement repeatability

Imaging options

  • Line profiles
  • 3D images of internal and external surfaces
  • Height and intensity images of “unfolded” surfaces
  • Cross-sections of semi-transparent materials
  • Deviation maps

Acquired 3D-ID of a drilled rivet hole (4.5-mm diameter) shows the presence of a burr

Acquired 3D-ID of a drilled rivet hole (4.5-mm diameter) in aircraft fuselage assembly

Benefits

  • Easily integrated in lab, shop, or fully-automated industrial inspection setups 
  • Reduces inspection cycle time: the rotational scanner spins the probe at up to 30 rotations per second, and obtains up to 30,000 measurements per second.  Each measurement represents a 3D topographic point.
  • Flexible options for evaluating inspected parts: measured features can be compared to CAD drawings or to a user-defined set of locations, nominals, and tolerances
  • Simple scan definition and execution: The scanning sequence is defined once by teaching the system with a joystick. The scanning sequence can later be executed with the push of a button.
  • Time-saving automated reporting: Following a scan, go-no-go reports can be produced and results logged in a manner compatible with industry-standard mechanisms.
  • Adaptable to harsh environments
  • No consumables are needed: Optical probes do not come in contact with the measured samples, and therefore do not wear out like contact probes. Accidental damage is rare−probes are designed to be rugged.

 

Applications

3D metrology and imaging of bores for industry and R&D

  • Quality control
  • Automated 3D production inspection, geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T)
  • Statistical process control (SPC)
  • Research and development (R&D) inspection
  • Reverse engineering and part-to-CAD
  • Maintenance, repair and operations (MRO)
  • Profilometry in harsh environments

Typical measurements inside bores

  • Full geometry, diameter, circularity, cylindricity, taper, runout, etc.
  • Deviation from CAD model
  • High-aspect-ratio features: undercuts, steps, O-ring grooves, threads, channels, sharp edges, steep slopes, and cross-holes
  • Volume loss: surface wear or other damage
  • Defects: corrosion, pitting, cracking, denting, scratching, porosity
  • Surface roughness: linear or area roughness
  • Thickness of semi-transparent coating: single-layer or multilayer films

Examples of bore inspection applications

Measurement, visualization, and GD&T inspection of ID surfaces in:

  • Parts made by casting, high-precision drilling, deep gun drilling, injection molding, 3D printing, additive manufacturing
  • Extrusion dies, feed-through holes, blind holes
  • Automotive industry engine components: valve bodies, valve seats, cylinder blocks, cylinder heads, camshafts, crankshafts, drive shafts, combustion chambers, any die cast parts, and more
  • Aerospace industry: valves, cylinders, manifolds, and other engine components featuring bores or slots; drilled rivet holes at aircraft fuselage assembly
  • Aerospace and industrial gas turbine engines: compressor and turbine airfoils and vanes, vane rings, duct or nozzle throats, shafts
  • High-precision machining: bores and slots in parts for defense, industrial, medical equipment, nuclear, oil and gas, power generation, transportation (train and marine as well as aerospace and automotive) sectors

Gallery

Gallery (click images for close-up)

Cast engine block 3D measurement

Novacam rotational scanner RS2 on a robotic arm inspects bores in an engine cylinder block

Novacam rotational scanner RS2 on a robotic arm inspects bores in an engine cylinder block

Rotational scanner entering a small-diameter bore in the engine cylinder block

Rotational scanner entering a small-diameter bore in the engine cylinder block

Acquired 3D point cloud

Acquired 3D point cloud

Automotive valve body bore metrology

Automotive valve body prior to inspection

Automotive valve body prior to inspection

Rotational scanner measuring valve body bores in an automated sequence.

Rotational scanner measuring valve body bores in an automated sequence.

Visualization of the acquired 3D point cloud reveals a defect near the entry

Visualization of the acquired 3D point cloud reveals a defect near the entry

Following the execution of a fully automated inspection sequence, all 4 bores are shown and analyzed. Automated go-no-go reporting evaluates acquired bore measurements against user-specified criteria.

Following the execution of a fully automated inspection sequence, all 4 bores are shown and analyzed. Automated go-no-go reporting evaluates acquired bore measurements against user-specified criteria.

Height image of the "unfolded" inner diameter of a valve body bore.

Height image of the “unfolded” inner diameter of a valve body bore.

Intensity image of the "unfolded" inner diameter of a valve body bore.

Intensity image of the “unfolded” inner diameter of a valve body bore.

Deviation map of a valve body bore reveals a defect - a 19.7 micrometer-deep pit.

Deviation map of a valve body bore reveals a defect – a 19.7 micrometer-deep pit.

Turbocharger impeller – inner thread measurements

3D map of the acquired ID surface

3D map of the acquired ID surface.  In this scan, 307,896 points were acquired in ~10 seconds.

Acquired 3D measurements for the inner thread of the turbocharger. 307,896 points were acquired in approximately 10 seconds.

Acquired 3D measurements for the inner thread of the turbocharger.

Airfoil 3D measurements

The rotational scanner probe easily enters between the closely-spaced airfoil blades.

The rotational scanner probe easily enters between the closely-spaced airfoil blades.

Acquired surface of air foil blades

Acquired surface of air foil blades

Surface detail on airfoil blade.

Surface detail on airfoil blade.

Turbine stator blade (nozzle guide vane) 3D metrology

Inner surfaces of stator blade being inspected by rotational scanner.

Inner surfaces of stator blade being inspected by rotational scanner.

3D map of the acquired stator blade surfaces characterizes its cooling holes and EDM slots.

3D map of the acquired stator blade surfaces characterizes its cooling holes and EDM slots.

Detailed analysis of cooling hole measurements helps diagnose any out-of-spec dimensions.

Detailed analysis of cooling hole measurements helps diagnose any out-of-spec dimensions.

Software

Metrology software

Data acquisition

The BoreInspect system comes with Novacam high-performance data acquisition software, which is

  • PC, Windows®-based
  • User-friendly for scan programming and visualization

An application programming interface (API) is available for system integrators and OEMs. With the API, a wide variety of online and offline applications can be accommodated.

Novacam data acquisition software

 

Data analysis and 3D imaging

The following options are available for data analysis and 3D imaging:

  • Data output options: 3D point cloud, height image, intensity image, roughness, diameter, STL file format
  • Integrated turnkey solution with PolyWorks Inspector
  • Output is exportable to turnkey integrated 3rd party CAD packages selected by the client:
    • CAD/CAM software: PolyWorks, Geomagic, SolidWorks, Creo Elements/Pro (Pro/ENGINEER), etc.
    • Imaging, visualization and numerical analysis software: ImageJ, Octave, MatLab, Mathematica, IDL, IGOR Pro
    • Surface and roughness analysis software
  • Exported data can be integrated with data loggers and SPC software

3D measurements of a bore ID displayed as deviation map

3D measurements of a bore ID displayed as deviation map

Option: Novacam volume loss application

Novacam Volume Loss application processes the acquired surface dimensional data to determine volume loss from abrasion and wear:

  • with micron precision
  • on samples and components of various shapes and sizes including inner diameters of bores

 

Novacam Volume Loss Calculation Application

Novacam Volume Loss Application – click for closeup

Novacam Volume Loss Application: scan control user interface

Novacam Volume Loss Application – click for closeup

System components

System components

The BoreInspect is a modular system comprised of 1) an optical probe, 2) a rotational scanner that spins the probe, 3) Microcam interferometer, 4) an inspection station, 5) a PC, and, optionally, 6) multiplexing hardware (not shown in diagram).


The inspection capabilities of the BoreInspect are determined jointly by its components:

1) Optical probe

The non-contact optical probes come in several standard sizes and lengths and can be custom built as well.

Bore parameters

Standard probe characteristics*

Bore hole parameters - bore diameter and bore diameter range
Bore diameter range
(mm)
Probe diameter
(mm)
Spot size
(µm)
Probe length
(mm)
2-6113-2250-200**

Maximum probe length may be limited by mechanical constraints
4-103.05
4-203.05 (extended range)
6-14.6
6-254.6 (extended range)
20-5012.7
50-25018
* Only standard probe characteristics are listed in this table. Non-standard diameters and lengths are custom-built upon request.
** Probes as long as 2 m have been built.

2) Rotational scanner

The rotational scanner spins the optical probe at up to 30 times per second. It is fiber-based, meaning it is connected to the interferometer with a fiber-optic cable that can be hundreds of meters long. More than one scanner may be connected to one interferometer.

Rotational scanner model

ModelRS1
RS2
RS4
RS1RS2RS4
Range of bore diameters inspected6-250 mm
This RS is ideal for extra-long and extra- wide bores
1.25-25 mm
Rotational speedUp to 2 rotations/second (120 RPM)Up to 30 rotations/second (1,800 RPM)
Approximate size of rotational probe enclosure (i.e., does not include probe or stages)13 cm (W) x 18 cm (H) x 14 cm (L)
5” (W) x 7”(H) x 5½” (L)
8 cm (W) x 6.5 cm (H) x 17 cm (L)
2” (W) x 3½” (H) x 7”(L)
Motion & displacement capabilityRotation + linear (Z-axis)
+ optional X/Y-axis
Rotation + linear (Z-axis)
+ optional X/Y-axis Rotation + X/Y/Z-axis
Rotation + X/Y/Z-axis

3) Microcam interferometer

Microcam-3D profilometer (low-coherence interferometer) The Microcam interferometer provides the light source to the rotational scanner and processes the optical signal received from the scanner.
ModelMicrocam-3DMicrocam-4D
Technologylow-coherence interferometry
Light wavelength1310 nm, infrared
Non-contact measurements
Depth of fielddepends on selected probe parameters,
see table Standard probe characteristics above
Scanning depth range options*3.5 mm7 mm5 mm
Acquisition (A-scan) rate2.10 kHz1.05 kHz30 kHz
Axial (Z-axis) resolution< 0.5 µm
Light spot size (Lateral [XY-axis] resolution)4.1 - 146 µm, depends on selected probe parameters,
see table Standard probe characteristics above
Standoff distance1 - 100 mm for standard probes
up to 1 m for non-standard probes
Repeatability< 1 µm
Thickness measurements
Thickness measurement range (in Air, IR = 1.0)10 µm - 3.5 mm 10 µm - 7 mm 20 µm - 5 mm
Typical materials for thickness measurementsglass, polymers, multi-layer films, coatings, plastics, silicone, liquids, specular or non-specular
Sample reflectivity0.1 - 100%

*To further increase maximum scanning depth, a mechanical displacement axis is available.

4) Inspection station

Inspection station configurations are application-dependent and can be supplied by Novacam. Fixturing for the part is not included.
Lab and shop floor inspection stationsAutomation and inline industrial inspection
These setups typically include an inspection station with scanner displacement in 2, 3 or 4 axes. Motion controllers are included.
Granite tables are optionally available and recommended for some applications.
The BoreInspect rotational scanners may be integrated with third-party CMMs (coordinate-measuring machines), CNC (computer numerical control) machines, or any robots (as a robot end-effector) to support high-volume continuous flow manufacturing.

5) PC, monitor and joystick

The BoreInspect system comes with a PC (with Novacam acquisition software), a monitor, mouse, and joystick.
Polyworks InspectorTM metrology software for full GD&T inspection of the parts can be purchased with the system. Custom data processing, reporting and defect detection programs can also be written based on client requirements.See “software” tab for more detail.

6) Hardware for multiplexing support (optional)

Optical switches are available for multiplexing up to 8 probes to a single Microcam interferometer.

Additional info

Standard system configuration

A standard configuration of the BoreInspect includes:

  • RS2 rotational scanner with a standard 4.6 mm-diameter side-looking probe (for inspection of bores up to 660 mm (26″) deep)
  • Microcam-3D profilometer
  • 3-axis inspection station and 3-axis motion controller
  • PC with Novacam acquisition software
  • 1 year warranty

Instrument safety

  • Microcam systems feature an in-probe red laser pointer (650 nm wavelength) for alignment purposes.
  • Microcam systems are Class 1M Laser products, with < 20 mW of infrared and < 5 mW of in-probe laser pointer.
MicroCam non-contact profilometers are Class 1M laser products

FAQ

How long does it take to scan a bore?

  • Scan time depends on the bore size, bore length, and what aspects of the bore you need to measure. The scanner rotates at 1,800 rotations per minute (or 30 rotations/second) and the BoreInspect (with Microcam-4D) acquires up to 30,000 measurements per second, or roughly 1 million 3D topography points in 33 seconds.  The user selects the rotation and acquisition speeds and the pitch of the spiral, which together determine the number of points that will be acquired and the time the scan will take. In general, dimensional measurement (for GD&T) require the least amount of points and can be achieved the fastest.  Roughness callouts may take 3 to 4 seconds each.  Defect detection requires the most amount of points, of course depending on the size of defect you are looking for.  For help on estimating the time required to scan your sample, please contact us.

Is the system easy to use?

Is the system able to work right on production floor?

  • Yes.  Both inline and robot setups are possible.

Can BoreInspect give us automated measurements and reports?

  • Yes.

I noticed the probe spins.  Is runout an issue and does it affect the scan data?

  • No, runout is not an issue. Gauge rings are used to calibrate the probe and validate the results.  The system provides micron-level diameter measurement repeatability.

Does the BoreInspect rotational scanner probe have to be on the centerline of the bore?

  • The BoreInspect scanner probe should be positioned close to the centerline of the bore (within a mm) to capture the entirety of the features. For irregularly-shaped objects or slots or crevices, the rotational scanner can acquire the entire surface by scanning from several positions.

  • For any questions or for assistance with configuring your optimal BoreInspect system, please Contact us.